I had a problem with Server Manager not displaying any roles or features installed on a Windows 2008 Server, and this error message would come up at the bottom of the page:
The problem has to do with files missing from the Update repository in Windows, and basically you have to find the missing files by running the Update Readiness tool from Microsoft. This tool will display files that are missing in a log file, located at c:windowslogsCBSCheckSUR.log. When you have found the files missing, by downloading them from Microsoft, put them in c:windowsservicingPackages. This involves taking ownership of the directory, copying the files, and then changing the ownership back to its original, NT ServiceTrustedInstaller. After replacing the files, my failed updates would install and all was well with the Service Manager.
For a more thorough guide, you can check out Jack Linssen’s blog post on this subject.